**Alpha**: Alpha measures the performance of a portfolio compared to its reference indicator. Negative alpha means the fund performed less well than its reference indicator (e.g. if the indicator increased by 10% in one year and the fund increased by only 6%, its alpha is -4). Positive alpha means the fund performed better than its reference indicator (e.g. if the indicator increased by 6% in one year and the fund increased by 10%, its alpha is 4).

**Beta**: Beta measures the relationship between the fluctuations of the net asset values of the fund and the fluctuations of the levels of its reference indicator. Beta of less than 1 indicates that the fund “cushions” the fluctuations of its index (beta = 0.6 means that the fund increases by 6% if the index increases by 10% and decreases by 6% if the index falls by 10%). Beta higher than 1 indicates that the fund “magnifies” the fluctuations of its reference indicator (beta = 1.4 means that the fund increases by 14% when the index increases by 10% but also decreases by 14% when the index decreases by 10%). Beta of less than 0 indicates that the fund reacts inversely to the fluctuations of its reference indicator (beta = -0.6 means that the fund falls by 6% when the index increases by 10% and vice versa).

**Capitalisation**: A company’s stock market value at any given moment. It is obtained by multiplying the number of shares of a company by its stock exchange price.

**Correlation**: Correlation is a measure of how securities or asset classes move in relation to each other. Highly correlated investments tend to move up and down together while investments with low correlation tend to perform in different ways in different market conditions, providing investors with diversification benefits. Correlation is measured between 1 (perfect correlation) and -1 (perfect opposite correlation). A correlation coefficient of 0 suggests there is no correlation.

**Drawdown**: A draw down is usually quoted as the percentage between the peak and trough of an investment during a specific period. It can help to compare an investment's possible reward to its risk. Alternatively, when investing in certain types of funds, particularly venture capital funds, it can also refer to when an investor commits to invest a sum of money but doesn't give it all to the fund manager immediately. The fund manager makes the investments and draws down money as required.

**Directional strategies**: Directional strategies: A directional strategy is an investment strategy that strives to benefit from a rise or fall of a specific asset class price.

**Duration**: A bond’s duration is the period beyond which interest rate variations will no longer affect its return. The duration is like a discounted average lifetime of all flows (interest and capital).

**FCP**: Fonds commun de placement (French common fund)

**Forward financial instruments** : A forward contract is a customized contract between two parties to buy or sell an asset at a specified price on a future date. A forward contract can be used for hedging or speculation, although its non-standardized nature makes it particularly apt for hedging. Unlike standard futures contracts, a forward contract can be customized to any commodity, amount and delivery date. A forward contract settlement can occur on a cash or delivery basis.

**High yield**: A loan or bond rated below investment grade because of its higher default risk. The return on these securities is generally higher.

**Investment/exposure rate**: The investment rate constitutes the volume of assets invested expressed as a percentage of the portfolio. Adding the impact of the derivatives to this investment rate results in the exposure rate, which corresponds to the real percentage of asset exposure to a certain risk. Derivatives can be used to increase the underlying asset’s exposure (stimulation) or reduce it (hedging).

**Investment grade**: A loan or bond that rating agencies have rated AAA to BBB-, generally indicating relatively low default risk.

**Market capitalisation** : A measure of a company's size, calculated by multiplying the total number of shares in issue by the current share price. Companies are commonly grouped according to size as small cap, mid cap or large cap. There is no consensus on the monetary boundaries of these ranges but as a rough guide in the US market: large cap is over $10 billion, mid cap is $2 billion–$10 billion and small cap is $250 million–$2 billion.

**Mid-capitalisation companies** : The market capitalization of the stocks of companies with market values between $3 to $10 billion.

**Modified duration**: A bond’s modified duration measures the risk attached to a given change in the interest rate. Modified duration of +2 means that for an instantaneous 1% rate increase, the portfolio’s value would drop by 2%.

**Net asset value**: Price of all units (in an FCP) or shares (in a SICAV).

**Non-benchmarked**: Portfolio construction is a result of Fund manager views and market analysis with no bias to any benchmark.

**Quantitative easing**: Quantitative easing is an unconventional monetary policy in which a central bank purchases government securities or other securities from the market in order to lower interest rates and increase the money supply.

**Rating**: The rating measures the creditworthiness of a borrower (bond issuer). Ratings are published by rating agencies and offer the investor reliable information on the risk profile associated with a debt security.

**Sharpe ratio**: The Sharpe ratio measures the excess return over the risk-free rate divided by the standard deviation of this return. It thus shows the marginal return per unit of risk. When it is positive, the higher the Sharpe ratio, the more risk-taking is rewarded. A negative Sharpe ratio does not necessarily mean that the portfolio posted a negative performance, but rather that it performed worse than a risk-free investment.

**SICAV**: Société d’Investissement à Capital Variable (Open-ended investment company with variable capital).

**UCITS**: Undertakings for Collective Investments in Transferable Securities. UCITS funds are authorised funds that can be sold in any country in the EU. UCITS III regulations allow funds to invest in a wider range of financial instruments, including derivatives.

**VaR**: Value at Risk (VaR) represents an investor’s maximum potential loss on the value of a financial asset portfolio, based on a holding period (20 days) and confidence interval (99%). This potential loss is expressed as a percentage of the portfolio’s total assets. It is calculated on the basis of a sample of historical data (over a two-year period).

**Volatility**: Range of price variation of a security, fund, market or index, which enables the measurement of risk over a given period. It is determined using the standard deviation obtained by calculating the square root of the variance. The variance is obtained by calculating the average deviation from the mean, which is then squared.The greater the volatility, the greater the risk.

**Yield to maturity**: Yield to maturity corresponds to the concept of actuarial yield. It is, at the time of calculation, the rate of return offered by a bond in the event it is held until maturity by the investor.